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Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest

UC Davis researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
The earliest known usage of tobacco in the Pacific Northwest was smoked using a pipe similar to this one, according to Shannon Tushingham, a UC Davis archaeology research associate. Credit: Shannon Tushingham

(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.

"The study demonstrates that was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the .

Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.

Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.

"The longer people sit out of the job market, the harder it's going to be for them to re-enter," Frederickson says.
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中国厂商:中国汽车进军美国?巴菲特持股的比亚迪汽车公司称,它将于2015年登陆美国市场,吉利汽车也将于2016年进入美国市场。不过自2006年起,我们就一直在听说中国车企要登陆美国。中国汽车最大的硬伤是做工问题。中国有80多家汽车厂商,生产的车型多达524款,研发资金铺得太开,太单薄,以至于很难获得有意义的业绩。
The results are based on a survey of 15,870 people across the country in August and September.
两年前,美国电影学院特地延迟了年终投票的时间,就为了电影星球大战:原力觉醒能够参选,后来该电影进入了2015榜单前十。然而今年最新的《星际大战:最后的绝地武士》,将于12月15日上映,无缘上榜。
五大发展理念:创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的发展理念

Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.

[t?ek]
The mainstream remains the awkwardly named sector of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games, or MMORPGs. In October, six out of the 10 most popular online games in China are MMORPG games, according to the report. World of Warcraft by Activision Blizzard, Inc. (ATVI) still tops the list with the most registered players and peak simultaneous online users. But the current government regulatory fighting over its Chinese license, held by Netease.com Inc. (NTES), may yet have a negative impact on the game, according to the report.
Transport Ministry spokesman Xu Chengguang told a news conference that no further signs of life had been found and the chance of finding anyone else alive was "very slim."
投资者也关注到了本田的这一困境。尽管在席卷全球的金融危机中,本田是全球少数几家能独善其身、避免严重亏损的汽车厂商之一,但在过去几年中,其普通股股价下跌了17.2%,而同期日经225指数却上涨了7.4%,丰田汽车的股价也上涨了19.5%。
So what forces will shape the questions asked next year? It depends on who (and where) you are. While buyers should brace for another year of high-stakes bidding wars, residents of the city’s far-flung neighborhoods (I’m talking about you, Grand Concourse) should be ready for an onslaught of prospective residents seeking bargains — bargains, that is, relative to the gilded ZIP codes that are out of the reach of most mortals.
给你特别的祝福,愿新年带给你无边的幸福、如意。
罗杰斯夫人还表示,正如条款中所述,她并没有同意她的儿子玩这个游戏。此外,由于这个游戏是免费的,所以该工作室不能够断言因为作弊软件而造成了利润损失。
不过,接受调查的经济学家们预期2016年期间将出现略高的增长率和显著更高的通胀率。

This technology previously existed for arms, but legs are rather more complicated. And since a misread signal can send you jumping off a bridge or in front of a moving car, thought-controlled legs need more stringent programming than equivalent arms. As one of the researchers delicately put it, “If you're using a bionic arm and it misbehaves, the elbow may move slightly. If the prosthetic leg misbehaves . . . that could be quite a safety issue.”
The ranking measures the quality and breadth of the schools’ postgraduate programmes. Schools must take part in all four rankings to be eligible for a full score. LBS rose from third last year by participating in all four rankings for the first time.
不久后,拉塞尔爱上了一名叫菲利普·莫里斯的狱友。莫里斯出狱后,拉塞尔通过给职员办公室打电话再次越狱,还假冒法官,大幅降低了自己的保释金。为了和莫里斯在一起,他又被捕和逃脱了两次,一度假装自己已经离世。他现在被判终身监禁,但表示看到自己的电影形象很激动。
Beauty and Evolution
New Year should be a time of banked-up fines, the scent of flowers and wine, good talk, good memories and loyalties renewed. But if all else is lacking - love will do.新年是这样美好的时光:炉火熊熊,花儿芬芳,醇酒飘香,殷殷祝福,美好回忆,恩爱日新。即便没有一切,只要有爱便足矣。
理想化地描述并粉饰往昔,把往昔置于想象中的玫瑰色光环中,这是人类的天性。
10) I often make a fuss about unimportant things 0 1 2 3 4
v. 形成(颗粒状),

这里说的是2007年倒闭的那家巨型次贷公司吗?是2008年破产的雷曼兄弟(Lehman Brothers)吗?
The Raptors entered February as the team that most needed to make a move: their hot start was fading, their defense wasn't up to snuff for a contender, they had a massive hole at the four, and they felt added urgency to make the most of Kyle Lowry's prime in advance of his upcoming free agency.
万分沮丧之下,他发明了可以允许自拍的东西:他称之为"伸缩杆"。因为智能手机还没发明出来,所以,连接在自拍杆末端的是一个微型相机。在杆的前端有一面小镜子,方便使用者调整他们在相机里的姿态。他在1983年为"伸缩杆"申请了专利。虽然自拍杆进行了大量生产出售,却属商业败笔——相片的质量比较差。另外,以前的研究表明,那时的女士会因自己有自拍的想法而感到尴尬。在2000年,自拍杆被韦恩·弗洛姆(Wayne Fromm)重新发明,那时,上田宏的"伸缩杆"专利期尚有三年。弗洛姆称他的自拍杆为"快捷豆荚"。他认为他才是当今自拍杆的发明者,甚至起诉其他自拍杆生产者。当被问到上田宏的自拍杆时,弗洛姆评论说它们是"先前的艺术"。
本届电影节最大新闻与电影无关,而是关于鞋子。据《银幕日报》报道,上周二(5月19日),数名女性在去参加托德?海因斯(Todd Haynes)执导的《卡罗尔》(Carol)首映红毯时,因穿着装饰有莱茵石的平底鞋,而被工作人员以不符合规定为由拒之门外。报道一出,社交媒体上义愤填膺。戛纳新闻办公室仓促应对,称该报道断章取义:“这么多年来,电影节的规则都没有变过(参加电影节放映会,男士着无尾半正式晚礼服,女士穿正式礼服。)而对女性高跟鞋的跟高没有特定的要求,同样对男性的亦无特殊要求。”因此,为了确保遵守规则,男女主持会被提醒记住这些规则。好了,这下清楚了,媒体放映场没有任何着装要求:着装邋遢的记者们可穿着人字拖与运动鞋随意踏上皇宫广场(Palais)的阶梯。

The study is available online.


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Citation: Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest (2013, March 1) retrieved 18 November 2020 from https://phys.org/news/2013-03-uncover-earliest-tobacco-pacific-northwest.html
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