HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Thu, 26 Nov 2020 17:46:22 GMT 国模珍珍私拍150p涩y66

一线城市认房认贷 二手房市场或受影响最大

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 调查显示上海民众购房意愿缓慢回升 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

家具从高速换挡中速 家装成为舆论聚焦

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

卷铺走人的时候
The 2016 ranking features a record 90 programmes, up from 70 in 2014.
据国家新闻出版广电总局介绍,中国的电影票房收益在2017年上涨了13.45%,达559亿元(86亿美元),国产影片为该市场做了53.84%的贡献。
Vocal group: Little Big Town
n. 争斗,战斗
The swap is due largely to the major security breach at software company Adobe in October which affected tens of millions of users.
Tencent, with an estimated value of $44.7 billion, was crowned this year's Most Valuable Chinese brand on a list released by the Hurun Institute on Thursday, marking the second time in a row it came up on top.

彭博(Bloomberg)软性大宗商品指数上涨21%,工业金属和能源指数则分别上涨24%和1.5%。
Platforms will be created for crowd innovation, crowd support, crowdsourcing, and crowdfunding
爱德华卢斯(Edward Luce)
Those falls came despite a rise in insurance premium income of 37.3 per cent year-on-year to Rmb1.88tn, while total assets reached Rmb14.27tn, up 15.4 per cent.
鉴于《速度与激情7》定于2014年夏季在各大院线上映,“巨石强森”将再次迎来丰硕的一年。凭借影片《海格力斯》(Hercules)他还可以做得更好。该片讲述的是这位神话英雄在完成其著名的12件苦差后的生活,极有可能拍摄续集。如果该部影片也能取得巨大成功,那么约翰逊在2014年将获得丰厚的票房收入。

Footnotes

  • 2014用友年会建筑行业论坛成功召开
  • “We know the Netherlands and the Dutch from the Srebrenica massacre,” Mr Erdogan said, invoking the most shameful episode in modern Dutch history. “We know how rotten their character is from their massacre of 8,000 Bosnians there.”

汉森表示,美国原油增产意味着现货油价对地缘政治事件的反应不如以往那样大了。他说,目前的原油供应足够多,油价受威胁的程度不如以往,2014年将是首个出现一段时间原油供应增量超过需求增量的年头。
地球大气中的二氧化碳浓度超过了百万分之400个单位
7. Kristen Stewart
基因疗法发展良好。
不过,五家总部驻北京的旅行社表示,他们仍在销售3月份的韩国游产品,而中国最大在线旅游公司携程(Ctrip)也做了同样表态。中国三大国有航空公司的代表向彭博(Bloomberg)表示,他们并未收到要求停止销售赴韩国机票的指示。
2Canada

郑州:顶尖人才可享500万奖金+不超300平方米住房

References

View Abstract