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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

vt. 忽视,疏忽,忽略

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201110/156061.shtml
9、《神奇动物在哪里》
Changing minds

Making the cut for the first time, Gigi, 22, and Bella Hadid, 21, are ranked at number five and number nine respectively, with the former making $9.5 million and the younger sibling taking in $6 million.
去年,由于俄罗斯经济陷入衰退,总统普京的工资因此缩减10%,但在此之前,普京2014年4月薪资增长逾两倍,约970万卢布。
However, we are sceptical that the strength of imports can be sustained given that the delayed impact of policy tightening and a cooling property market are set to weigh on Chinese demand for commodities in coming quarters.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

中国建材行业一周大事记(11.9-11.13)

China has 731 million Internet users as of December 2016, roughly the size of Europe's population, according to a report released by the China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC).
Kate Hudson spoke to British Elle magazine exclusively for this interview。   凯特·哈德森接受了英国ELLE杂志对她的独家专访。Does actress Kate Hudson know wha
pilot

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Employers have stepped up their hiring recently, adding 171,000 jobs in October and an average of 157,000 a month so far this year. That's a better pace than last year and the strongest job growth since 2006, Labor Department data show.[qh]
As for the worst job of 2013? Newspaper reporter bumped last year's loser, lumberjack, for the ignominious distinction.
If there are nine or 10 best picture nominees, it could grab a spot. Jordan Peele's screenplay looks certain to be recognized.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 政治建军、改革强军、依法治军
  • 我国经济总量排名:上海北京深圳位列全国前三
  • ●"Woman arrested for defecating on boss’ desk after winning the lottery"
  • 定制化时代 铝合金门窗企业怎么华丽转身?
  • 局地现松动 整体房贷利率显触顶迹象
  • 裘德韦伯(Jude Webber)
    对于在泥潭里挣扎的球队,有一样建队过程中关键的东西一直诱惑着他们,那就是建队计划。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 无锡“著名烂尾楼”破产续建 升值四五倍, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

按8月成交速度 上海新房去库存时间仅为4.6个月

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

厨房客厅变居室 长租公寓任性改造几时休

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • The parallels between Snapchat, the upstart "sexting" service, and social media behemoth Facebook (FB) in its early days are uncanny. We all know how well Zuckerberg's long bet paid off (not to mention how thoroughly he vanquished those dastardly Winklevoss twins). Could Snapchat's future be just as bright?
    这是007系列电影的另一首爱情歌曲。如果《雷霆谷》的这首主题曲在你的牙齿矫正医生办公室播放,那么这将是镇上最帅最性感的牙齿矫正医生的办公室。弦乐部分充满神秘感,降调充满趣味。这两者结合缔造了神奇。榜单从这开始往后所有的007电影主题曲都是真正的经典。
  • 达洛伊西奥的父母从澳大利亚搬到英国,他的父亲卢(Lou)曾在英国石油(BP)和摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)工作,而母亲戴安娜(Diana)是一位企业律师,同时也是儿子的合同代表。他们向来都知道达洛伊西奥是一个非常好学的孩子。但戴安娜说因为他是长子,他们本以为他不会做出什么超出寻常的事情来(达洛伊西奥有一个14岁的弟弟)。他们强调,尽管达洛伊西奥成就非凡,尽管他聊天时会聊起马尔科夫模型(Markov models)和随机过程(stochastic processes),他仍只是一个再普通不过的孩子。戴安娜说,他周末仍要出去玩,仍要去参加派对。他还有个女朋友。17岁孩子会做的事情,他都会做。
    梅根·马克尔
    re再+membr[=member]记得+ance→回忆;记忆力
    Gov. Ricardo Rossello, 37, proposed several measures aimed at alleviating the crisis shortly after he was sworn in at midnight. Among them is a proposal to hold a referendum that would ask voters whether they prefer statehood or independence. Many have argued that Puerto Rico’s political status has contributed to its decade-long crisis that has prompted more than 200,000 people to flee to the U.S. mainland in recent years.
    Derrick Rose

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 我爱我家帮二房东非法转租房屋 事后百般推责
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 特普丽墙纸第4期经销商培训会圆满落幕

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

And second, while perceptions haven't changed much, the reality has: Making sure stuff gets where it needs to go, as cheaply and efficiently as possible, has evolved into a high-tech, high-stakes game that calls for a scarce combination of "hard" and "soft" skills.
Thank you to Aicha Nezzar for sharing this gem on the Facebook Group- Global English Forum.
安联(Allianz)每4年会举办一次公司内部的国际奥林匹克运动会。所有运动员费用统一由公司负担,届时还有开幕式。2010年的“奥运会”在布达佩斯举办,有超过70个国家的运动员参与。
在全球最具价值品牌百强榜上,有15个中国品牌上榜,比去年多一个,较10年前大有增加,当时中国移动(China Mobile)是唯一上榜的中国品牌。
If all this comes to pass, Huberty estimates that Apple's addressable smartphone market in China, which had dwindled to 10%, could triple to nearly 30%.
得益于网络游戏产业的快速增长,网易公司创始人丁磊的财富翻倍至960亿元,超越了百度公司董事长李彦宏,在IT富豪榜上排名第三。
John Williams's classic score still raises goosebumps over 40 years after this summer blockbuster hit theaters. Jaws preys on our primal fear of the unknown in deep waters, showing a small beach town ravaged by a series of attacks from a single killer shark. In recent years, environmentalists have stressed the generally nonthreatening nature of sharks, which kill an average of just eight swimmers each year.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 但是她的成功也来之不易。精美的舞台装和参赛的全程费用已经让她母亲花费了5000英镑的费用。
  • 业内人士呼吁政策机制改革促光伏发电“平价化”
  • A Method to the Madness
    冲击奖项:最佳电影提名应该可以肯定。参演《至暗时刻》的加里奥德曼是最佳男主角的最热人选,如果说有谁能击败他的话,那可能就是克莱门特了。
  • 台系LED厂5月业绩黯淡 亿光、晶电营收同比降幅大
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 挪威诺贝尔和平奖委员会主席亚格兰赞扬这三位女士的成就,还说,除非女性享有和男性一样的机会,否则我们不能实现持久的和平。
    今年3月,福特以16亿美元将沃尔沃卖给中国吉利汽车,从此退出豪华汽车市场。虽然这是一个巨大损失——福特11年前购买沃尔沃这家瑞典汽车制造商花了60亿美元——但2009年福特实现了27亿美元的利润,是2005年以来首次盈利。受惠于“旧车换现金”计划(更不要说丰田的加速器问题了),今年2月福特重新占据了美国最大汽车制造商的宝座。这也是为什么福特首席执行官阿兰?穆拉里能够将目光投向国外,如印度这样的大市场,在印度推出了紧凑车型Figo。
  • Hayley Williams remains a powerful up-front presence, a belter who can croon as convincingly as she can yelp. Her vocal bravado almost makes you forget that After Laughter is an up-close chronicle of her weariness with the world.
    Bill Gates topped the list of the world's richest billionaires for the 17th time in 22 years, it has been revealed.
  • 理查三世是金雀花王朝的最后一位国君,都铎王朝的继任者将其塑造成了不惜一切代价追求权力的无恶不作的暴君,还称他谋杀了他的两个侄子-也就是“塔中王子”-来保住王位。
    如果你是一个腼腆的人,那么一开始坐在前排可能会让你有点不自在。但是,我向你保证,这是接受老师传授的内容的最好的办法之一。你也可以听得更清楚。不用伸长脖子,你就可以看到黑板上所有的内容。
  • Traditionally Chinese universities scored less well in international ranking tables compared to US and European incumbents in levels of teaching and research.
    报告称,名校学生的创业意愿较低,或许因为创业机会成本高。
    在西方国家更新、更广泛的国民身份认同里,白人们也有自己的一席之地。但是除非他们接受这一点,“白”的危机仍会持续存在下去。
  • We learned that animals may make choices based on aesthetics.
    国家统计局日前在其网站发布了上述数据,称这是科技研发经费增速连续4年下滑后的首次回升。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 各地再度加码调控 一线城市住宅成交量同比下滑 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

橱柜企业开拓老年市场有难度 需关注情感诉求

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

第二届中国建材家居发展大会解读报告 2015年市场规模将超4万亿元

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

浙江越红控股申请破产 喜临门集团涉巨额担保

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

绿色智能制造成行业下一个风口

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • A minimum of 70 per cent of the con-tent must be delivered online in order for programmes to be eligible for the online ranking. Nine out of the 15 ranked schools had no requirement to study on campus at all. The remaining six schools insisted their students attend weekend or week-long residential classes.
  • 轮滑看起来有点像常规的单排轮滑鞋,不过轮滑的轮非常大,尺寸大小跟自行车车轮差不多,看起来像是溜冰鞋,滑雪板和自行车的合体。最近一家名字叫作战车溜冰的公司声称,他们已经有了一些独特的想法——战车轮滑。根据该公司所说,这种轮滑是"革命性的新轮滑产品"。这是一场改革吗?也许是吧,他们至少在改进设计。这是发明吗?不是的。第一双轮滑早在142年前就已存在 。
  • 开放合作是美的、海尔智能家居战略落地的关键词

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 7.Jaws
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 当你和他/她在一起的时候,你看不见周围的所有人,你的眼中只有他/她
    The Chinese comedy Never Say Die has brought in an impressive $326 million worldwide to date.
    "The CPI just went up two percent year on year in 2016, less than the three-percent predictive index. It was a moderate inflation, and reflected the price level was effectively controlled and basically stable," said Jin.
  • Jules Pieri

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 总之,尤吉利用特伦斯-罗斯、贾里德-萨林杰以及三个选秀权换来了两名季后赛老兵。
  • 建筑防水卷材企业产品和服务标准自我声明公开试点
  • 8.Suicide Squad

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 11月广州楼市:一手楼与二手楼成交面积同比均大降
  • Household substance abuse
  • 2015下沉大势难挡 瓷砖企业降低毛利渗透市场
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

海南:前9月房地产投资增速2.5% 连续4月回落

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 水泥前十企业2015年集中度达45%
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 搭上互联网"便车" 助门窗企业抢占年轻市场
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

1=不全是

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

vt. 打斗
我叫它“万隆奖”,该奖得名于一位中国肉业大亨,人家身为CEO却无比坦诚地宣称:“我就是个杀猪卖肉的。”万隆先生一定会同意我把这个奖颁给北伯林顿铁路公司(BNSF)的一位高管,这位仁兄在一次会议上说:“我们把东西从一个地方运到另一个地方。”
数百所国内高校的2017届、2015届和2013届毕业生、共281万人参与了这项调查。
顾伦德.查达哈的这部殖民题材电影讲的是1947年的英印权力移交及其余波。当时蒙巴顿勋爵夫妇的府邸有500名仆人,他们中有印度教徒、穆斯林和锡克教徒。休.博内威利和吉莉安.安德森饰演主人公夫妇。
坚持一个中国的政策,这是中美关系的政治基础,不是风云变幻能够动摇的,也动摇不得。有了这样一个政治基础,中美合作的前景是广阔的。
They boast two of the biggest fan bases in the world.But it was Shawn Mendes who reigned supreme during the 2017 Europe Music Awards 2017, held inside London's SSE Arena, Wembley, on Sunday night, as Taylor Swift lost out in all five of her categories.
2017年,衡量工业品出厂价格、反映经济活力的主要指标--生产者物价指数(PPI)上涨6.3%,结束了自2012年以来的连续下降态势。2016年PPI下降1.4%。
adj. 代理的,副的
20. 对电影爱好者的最佳建议。8月学者韦勒·温斯顿·迪克森(Wheeler Winston Dixon)发出了警告:“如果你上亚马逊,看到什么精彩的黑白电影卖三美元,或者其他什么外国电影和鲜为人知的电影,赶快买下来,因为它就要绝版了,他们不会再出版它们了。”成千上万这种VHS格式的电影不会被做成DVD格式或蓝光格式,迪克森警告说。而下载的美丽新世界(又名电子销售)明年将是好年头。
immunity

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

收购本是发展契机 雷曼光电为何被指“瞎花钱”?

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 眼下,这位大摩新掌门或许意识到了来自零售经纪业务的微薄盈利还不够华尔街薪酬的血盆大口塞牙缝。预计戈尔曼会决定最终要向交易商高盛(Goldman Sachs)看齐。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • vt. 鼓励,促进,支持
  • 共同写好大湾区世界级文章
  • The rest of the top 10 2016 highest-paid actresses are:
  • 台湾LED产业仍旧呈现上瘦下肥 亿光成为LED获利王
  • 9. Am I spending too much? Overspending can lead to stress, clutter, and financial complications. It can also turn into a nasty habit over time. Saving money is an excellent practice and you will more than likely be glad you did in case of an emergency.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 住建部召开部分城市座谈会 对楼市调控不力的城市坚决问责
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 《Trigger Mortis》于9月8日发行,先于10月26日上映的007新电影《(幽灵党(暂译)》(Spectre)。
  • 10.自拍杆

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

楼市松绑难阻家居业疲软 品牌企业逆势扩张

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